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New instrument concepts for ocean sensing: analysis of the PAU-radiometer
Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Bosch Lluís, Xavier; Ramos Pérez, Isaac; Marchán Hernández, Juan Fernando; Izquierdo Fernandez, Benjamin; Rodríguez Álvarez, Nereida
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions; Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. RSLAB - Grup de Recerca en Teledetecció
Sea surface salinity can be remotely measured by means of L-band microwave radiometry. However, the brightness temperature also depends on the sea surface temperature and on the sea state, which is probably today one of the driving factors in the salinity retrieval error budgets of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the NASA-Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales Aquarius/SAC-D mission. This paper describes the Passive Advanced Unit (PAU) for ocean monitoring. PAU combines in a single instrument three different sensors: an L-band radiometer with digital beamforming (DBF) (PAU-RAD) to measure the brightness temperature of the sea at different incidence angles simultaneously, a global positioning system (GPS) reflectometer [PAU-reflectometer of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS-R)] also with DBF to measure the sea state from the delay-Doppler maps, and two infrared radiometers to provide sea surface temperature estimates. The key characteristic of this instrument is that both PAU-RAD and the PAU-GNSS/R share completely the RF/IF front-end, and analog-to-digital converters. Since in order to track the GPS-reflected signal, it is not possible to chop the antenna signal as in a Dicke radiometer, a new radiometer topology has been devised which makes uses of two receiving chains and a correlator, which has the additional advantage that both PAU-RAD and PAU-GNSS/R can be operated continuously and simultaneously to perform the sea-state corrections of the brightness temperature. This paper presents the main characteristics of the different PAU subsystems, and analyzes in detail the PAU-radiometer concept.
Peer Reviewed
Àrees temàtiques de la UPC::Enginyeria de la telecomunicació::Radiocomunicació i exploració electromagnètica::Teledetecció
Radiometry
Reflectometer
Brightness temperature
Global positioning system
Data acquisition
Microwave measurement
Ocean temperature
Oceanographic techniques
Radiometry
Remote sensing
Seawater
Dicke radiometer
European Space Agency
Global Navigation Satellite Signals
L-band microwave radiometry
NASA-Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales Aquarius/SAC-D mission
PAU-radiometer
Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission
Analog-to-digital converter
Antenna signal
Brightness temperature
Delay-Doppler maps
Digital beamforming
Incidence angle
Infrared radiometer
Ocean monitoring
Salinity retrieval error budget
Sea surface salinity
Sea surface temperature
Radiometria
Temperatures -- Mesurament
Artículo
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
         

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