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The contributions of rare objects in correspondence analysis
Greenacre, Michael
Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Departament d'Economia i Empresa
Correspondence analysis, when used to visualize relationships in a table of counts(for example, abundance data in ecology), has been frequently criticized as being too sensitiveto objects (for example, species) that occur with very low frequency or in very few samples. Inthis statistical report we show that this criticism is generally unfounded. We demonstrate this inseveral data sets by calculating the actual contributions of rare objects to the results ofcorrespondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis, both to the determination ofthe principal axes and to the chi-square distance. It is a fact that rare objects are oftenpositioned as outliers in correspondence analysis maps, which gives the impression that theyare highly influential, but their low weight offsets their distant positions and reduces their effecton the results. An alternative scaling of the correspondence analysis solution, the contributionbiplot, is proposed as a way of mapping the results in order to avoid the problem of outlying andlow contributing rare objects.
2012-11-26
Statistics, Econometrics and Quantitative Methods
biplot
canonical correspondence analysis
contribution
correspondence analysis
influence
outlier
scaling
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