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Pathology and immune response of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) after an exposure to the harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum
Galimany Sanromà, Eva; Sunila, Inke; Hégarer, Hélene; Ramon, Montserrat; Wikfors, Gary H.
IRTA. Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries
The harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum has different effects upon various species of grazing bivalves, and these effects also vary with life-history stage. Possible effects of this dinoflagellate upon mussels have not been reported; therefore, experiments exposing adult blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, to P. minimum were conducted. Mussels were exposed to cultures of toxic P. minimum or benign Rhodomonas sp. in glass aquaria. After a short period of acclimation, samples were collected on day 0 (before the exposure) and after 3, 6, and 9 days of continuous-exposure experiment. Hemolymph was extracted for flow-cytometric analyses of hemocyte, immune-response functions, and soft tissues were excised for histopathology. Mussels responded to P. minimum exposure with diapedesis of hemocytes into the intestine, presumably to isolate P. minimum cells within the gut, thereby minimizing damage to other tissues. This immune response appeared to have been sustained throughout the 9-day exposure period, as circulating hemocytes retained hematological and functional properties. Bacteria proliferated in the intestines of the P. minimum-exposed mussels. Hemocytes within the intestine appeared to be either overwhelmed by the large number of bacteria or fully occupied in the encapsulating response to P. minimum cells; when hemocytes reached the intestine lumina, they underwent apoptosis and bacterial degradation. This experiment demonstrated that M. edulis is affected by ingestion of toxic P. minimum; however, the specific responses observed in the blue mussel differed from those reported for other bivalve species. This finding highlights the need to study effects of HABs on different bivalve species, rather than inferring that results from one species reflect the exposure responses of all bivalves.
2008-08
Musclos
Algues tòxiques
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33 p.
Article
Article
Elsevier B.V.
         

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