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Detection and Quantification of Viable and Nonviable Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites by a Propidium Monoazide Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay.
Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa Saladrigas, Roser; Alcover Amengual, Maria Magdalena; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Riera Lizandra, Ma. Cristina
Universitat de Barcelona
Molecular techniques based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) allow the detection and quantification of DNA but are unable to distinguish between signals from dead or live cells. Because of the lack of simple techniques to differentiate between viable and nonviable cells, the aim of this study was to optimize and evaluate a straightforward test based on propidium monoazide (PMA) dye action combined with a qPCR assay (PMA-qPCR) for the selective quantification of viable/nonviable epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi PMA has the ability to penetrate the plasma membrane of dead cells and covalently cross-link to the DNA during exposure to bright visible light, thereby inhibiting PCR amplification. Different concentrations of PMA (50-200 μM) and epimastigotes of the Maracay strain of T. cruzi (1 × 105-10 parasites/mL) were assayed; viable and nonviable parasites were tested and quantified by qPCR with a TaqMan probe specific for T. cruzi In the PMA-qPCR assay optimized at 100 μM PMA, a significant qPCR signal reduction was observed in the nonviable versus viable epimastigotes treated with PMA, with a mean signal reduction of 2.5 logarithm units and a percentage of signal reduction > 98%, in all concentrations of parasites assayed. This signal reduction was also observed when PMA-qPCR was applied to a mixture of live/dead parasites, which allowed the detection of live cells, except when the concentration of live parasites was low (10 parasites/mL). The PMA-qPCR developed allows differentiation between viable and nonviable epimastigotes of T. cruzi and could thus be a potential method of parasite viability assessment and quantification.
(c) American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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