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Subjectively adapted high capacity lossless image data hiding based on prediction errors
Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías Jiménez, David; Ghanbari, Mohammed
This article reports on a lossless data hiding scheme for digital images where the data hiding capacity is either determined by minimum acceptable subjective quality or by the demanded capacity. In the proposed method data is hidden within the image prediction errors, where the most well-known prediction algorithms such as the median edge detector (MED), gradient adjacent prediction (GAP) and Jiang prediction are tested for this purpose. In this method, first the histogram of the prediction errors of images are computed and then based on the required capacity or desired image quality, the prediction error values of frequencies larger than this capacity are shifted. The empty space created by such a shift is used for embedding the data. Experimental results show distinct superiority of the image prediction error histogram over the conventional image histogram itself, due to much narrower spectrum of the former over the latter. We have also devised an adaptive method for hiding data, where subjective quality is traded for data hiding capacity. Here the positive and negative error values are chosen such that the sum of their frequencies on the histogram is just above the given capacity or above a certain quality.
Lossless data hiding
Reversible data hiding
Image watermarking

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