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Ultrastructure of vitellogenesis and vitellocytes in the trypanorhynch cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax
Swiderski, Zdzislaw; Miquel Colomé, Jordi; Marigo, Adji Mama; Gibson, David I.
Universitat de Barcelona
This is the first TEM examination of vitellogenesis in the cestode Aporhynchus menezesi, a parasite of the velvet belly lanternshark Etmopterus spinax and a member of a little-studied trypanorhynch family, the Aporhynchidae. The synthetic activity of vitellocytes plays two important functions in the developmental biology of cestodes: (1) their shell-globules serve in eggshell formation; and (2) their accumulated reserves of glycogen and lipids represent a food source for the developing embryo. In A. menezesi, vitelline follicles consist of cells at various stages of development, from peripheral, immature cells of the gonial type to mature cells towards the centre of the follicle. These stages are: (I) immature; (II) early differentiation; (III) advanced maturation; and (IV) mature. Gradual changes involved in this process occur within each stage. Vitellogenesis involves: (1) an increase in cell volume; (2) the development of a smooth endoplasmic reticulum and an accelerated formation and accumulation of both unsaturated and saturated lipid droplets, along with their continuous enlargement and fusion; (3) the formation of individual β-glycogen particles and their accumulation in the form of glycogen islands scattered among lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of maturing and mature vitellocytes; (4) the rapid accumulation of large, moderately saturated lipid droplets accompanied by dense accumulations of β-glycogen along with proteinaceous shell-globules or shell-globule clusters in the peripheral layer during the advanced stage of maturation; (5) the development of cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum that produce dense, proteinaceous shell-globules; (6) the development of Golgi complexes engaged in the packaging of this material; and (7) the progressive and continuous enlargement of shell-globules into very large clusters in the peripheral layer during the advanced stage of maturation. Vitellogenesis in A. menezesi, only to some extent, resembles that previously described for four other trypanorhynchs. It differs in: (i) the reversed order of secretory activities in the differentiating vitellocytes, namely the accumulation of large lipid droplets accompanied by glycogenesis or β-glycogen formation during early differentiation (stage II), i.e. before the secretory activity, which is predominantly protein synthesis for shell-globule formation (stage III); (ii) the very heavy accumulation of large lipid droplets during the final stage of cytodifferentiation (stage IV); and (iii) the small number of β-glycogen particles present in mature vitellocytes. Ultracytochemical staining with PA-TCH-SP for glycogen proved positive for a small number of β-glycogen particles in differentiating and mature vitellocytes. Hypotheses, concerning the interrelationships of patterns of vitellogenesis, possible modes of egg formation, embryonic development and life-cycles, are commented upon.
Ultraestructura (Biologia)
Ultrastructure (Biology)
(c) Elsevier Masson SAS, 2012
Elsevier Masson SAS

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