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A mild form of SLC29A3 disorder: a frameshift deletion leads to the paradoxical translation of an otherwise noncoding mRNA splice variant
Bolze, A.; Abhyankar, A.; Grant, A.; Patel, B.; Yadav, R.; Byun, M.; Caillez, D.; Lienhardt, P.Y.; Emile, J.F.; Pastor Anglada, Marçal; Abel, L.; Puel, A.; Govindarajan, R.; de Pontual, L.; Casanova, J.L.
Universitat de Barcelona
We investigated two siblings with granulomatous histiocytosis prominent in the nasal area, mimicking rhinoscleroma and Rosai-Dorfman syndrome. Genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous frameshift deletion in SLC29A3, which encodes human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-3 (hENT3). Germline mutations in SLC29A3 have been reported in rare patients with a wide range of overlapping clinical features and inherited disorders including H syndrome, pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes, and Faisalabad histiocytosis. With the exception of insulin-dependent diabetes and mild finger and toe contractures in one sibling, the two patients with nasal granulomatous histiocytosis studied here displayed none of the many SLC29A3-associated phenotypes. This mild clinical phenotype probably results from a remarkable genetic mechanism. The SLC29A3 frameshift deletion prevents the expression of the normally coding transcripts. It instead leads to the translation, expression, and function of an otherwise noncoding, out-of-frame mRNA splice variant lacking exon 3 that is eliminated by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in healthy individuals. The mutated isoform differs from the wild-type hENT3 by the modification of 20 residues in exon 2 and the removal of another 28 amino acids in exon 3, which include the second transmembrane domain. As a result, this new isoform displays some functional activity. This mechanism probably accounts for the narrow and mild clinical phenotype of the patients. This study highlights the"rescue" role played by a normally noncoding mRNA splice variant of SLC29A3, uncovering a new mechanism by which frameshift mutations can be hypomorphic.
cc-by (c) Bolze, A. et al., 2012
Public Library of Science (PLoS)

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