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Long-range transport of Saharan dust to northern Europe: The 11-16 October 2001 outbreak observed with EARLINET
Ansmann, Albert; Bösenberg, Jens; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo; Eckhardt, Sabine; Eixmann, Ronald; Freudenthaler, Volker; Ginoux, Paul; Komguem, Leonce; Linné, Holger; López Márquez, Miguel Ángel; Matthias, Volker; Mattis, Ina; Mitev, Valentin
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament de Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions
The spread of mineral particles over southwestern, western, and central Europeresulting from a strong Saharan dust outbreak in October 2001 was observed at10 stations of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). For the firsttime, an optically dense desert dust plume over Europe was characterized coherentlywith high vertical resolution on a continental scale. The main layer was located abovethe boundary layer (above 1-km height above sea level (asl)) up to 3–5-km height, andtraces of dust particles reached heights of 7–8 km. The particle optical depth typicallyranged from 0.1 to 0.5 above 1-km height asl at the wavelength of 532 nm, andmaximum values close to 0.8 were found over northern Germany. The lidar observationsare in qualitative agreement with values of optical depth derived from Total OzoneMapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data. Ten-day backward trajectories clearly indicated theSahara as the source region of the particles and revealed that the dust layer observed,e.g., over Belsk, Poland, crossed the EARLINET site Aberystwyth, UK, and southernScandinavia 24–48 hours before. Lidar-derived particle depolarization ratios,backscatter- and extinction-related A ° ngstro¨m exponents, and extinction-to-backscatterratios mainly ranged from 15 to 25%, 0.5 to 0.5, and 40–80 sr, respectively, within thelofted dust plumes. A few atmospheric model calculations are presented showing the dustconcentration over Europe. The simulations were found to be consistent with thenetwork observations.
2012-05-10
Lidar network
Mineral dust
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